The Culture of China in the middle ages
1. Education and science of China
The management of the vast country to the government required competent people. In China there were many schools and universities, but they studied only the children of the feudal lords and merchants. To become an officer, had to pass difficult exams.
In China, textbooks were issued for the construction of irrigation facilities, agriculture and other books. In large libraries carefully preserved and copied ancient manuscripts. In the VII century in the Imperial library there were about 90 thousand volumes.
In the VIII century in China was opened one of the first in the world scientific 20zaimstvovannye-drugimi- institutions Academy of Sciences . Chinese scientists have made many remarkable discoveries. Mathematics solved complex problems associated with construction; in the VII century in China there were more than 3 thousand mathematicians.
Doctors knew a lot of medication. They were able to do complex operations and means used for anesthesia. The greatest achievement of Chinese medicine had been vaccinated against smallpox.
The Chinese are very interested in the history of their country. This is evidenced by the proverb: “do Not forget the past, it is the teacher of the future” . In the middle ages were collected and copied the works of ancient historians. During the reign of each Emperor was going to his edicts, and other documents to facilitate the work of future historians. Scientists have compiled a detailed history of the reign of the previous dynasty.
Chinese travelers has done a lot for development geography. They visited Central Asia, India, and Indonesia, truthfully described the life and customs of many peoples. The sailors drew up detailed maps of the coast of South-East Asia.
2. Of the invention.
The Chinese first learned how to print books. Craftsmen first cut out the text on smooth wooden boards, was covered with hieroglyphics in ink and put them on paper. With each new text had again cut on the Board. From frequent wetting by a paint Board swells and quickly cracked. In the XI century was invented collapsible font, which consisted of individual characters. The characters are first sculpted from clay, and then learned how to cast them from metal. Appeared of printing, unfolded the book trade.
In the VIII century the district capital of China started the world’s first daily newspaper “Capital news”. The newspaper printed boards. It has placed the decrees of the Emperor and the most important news. This newspaper under the same name appeared more than a thousand years.
Already in ancient times in China learned how to make gunpowder. It was used first for fireworks and later in military Affairs. When defending cities, the warriors used a “fire spear” is so – called gunpowder rockets, which inflicted burns to enemies. In XIII-XIV centuries there were cannons and muskets.
In the eleventh century, Chinese sailors began to use the compass, invented in ancient times. With the help of the magnetic needle, they could accurately determine direction at sea.
3. The art in China.
By orders of the emperors and the feudal lords, the architects built magnificent palaces and pagodas – temples in the form of multi-storey high towers. Material for buildings served wood, stone, bronze and iron.
Pagodas were often decorated with intricate carvings.
The artists were educated in special schools and the Metropolitan Academy of painting. Chinese painters painted paint or ink. Painted not on canvas but on the long silk or paper scrolls. They were kept in special cases. Unlike the painters of the Church of Western Europe, Chinese artists sought a likeness in the image of people. They painted animals and birds, and landscapes – paintings of nature. The Chinese called the landscape of “mountains and water”. In the capital often held exhibitions of paintings by the best artists.
Handicrafts made of bronze, ivory and precious stones were great works of art; Vases, bowls and boxes were covered with carvings, figures, inlays of precious stones. Embroiderers so deftly picked up the hues of the silks, the embroidery that it was impossible to tell from the picture; on silk flowers portrayed, scenes from fairy tales, paintings of native wildlife.
In the middle ages existed in China theatres. In the capital, a school was opened for actors. At the Chinese theatre without scenery. And so the audience understand where the action is: for example, if the actor appeared with a paddle in hand, it meant that he sets sail. During the Mongol rule emerged and the theatre travelling performers. Their pieces sounded the call to fight with the invaders. A favorite spectacle of the Chinese people was puppet theatre.
4. The contribution of China to world culture.
Achievements of Chinese culture were adopted by other peoples. From China Japan and Korea had borrowed the writing system in these countries has moved and typography. Korean and Japanese doctors arrived to study in China.
Paper from China was imported to Central Asia. It learned to manufacture the Arabs and from them to the Europeans.
Silk production from China moved to Byzantium, then to Italy and France. By purchasing silk embroidery and porcelain, other Nations became acquainted with the Chinese art.
The Arabs met in China with a compass. In the XIII century through the Arabs it became known to Europeans. The use of the compass contributed to the development of navigation.
In the middle ages, talented Chinese people have achieved outstanding success in science, technology and art. Chinese culture was at that time much higher than in Europe.